Business Driven Architecture Project
Currently, the Department (XYZ) does not
have an enterprise-wide technical architecture (EWTA) plan which aligns
XYZís lines of business and Information Technology (IT). On March 6, 1998,
the Information Technology Branch with the support of the Information Technology
Department Quality Council (ITDQC) initiated an EWTA effort, the Business
Driven Architecture Project (BDAP).
What is a Business Driven Architecture
The BDAP will provide the blueprint for
the deployment of technology at XYZ. The BDAP is tasked with developing
an architecture that is:
Derived from the business requirements
Based upon a logically consistent set of principles
and best practices
Understood and supported by the Department
executives and lines of business
The basis for engineering the organizationís
information systems and technology infrastructure across the various component
A blueprint for minimizing the costs of deploying
and supporting technology.
The project approach for defining the Business
Driven Architecture, as illustrated in Figure 1, is divided into the following
Phase 0 (Project Planning)
Phase I (Business Focus)
Phase II (Technical Focus)
Phase III (Migration Plan)
Figure 1. Project Approach
Phase 0 - Business Case
"XYZ will be universally recognized for
its outstanding customer service and will be considered a model for public
agency quality and fairness." XYZ Vision Statement 1997
To achieve this vision, XYZ has pledged
to improve access to services, provide more customer focus and satisfaction,
improve efficiency and effectiveness, and build human resource capacity.
XYZ must accomplish these goals while responding to rapidly changing internal
and external business influences. Many of these influences are expressed
by Branch management and identified in the departmentís strategic plans.
Issues affecting the department today include:
Issues cited in business area and Information
Technology Branch interviews indicate the inability to:
Funding reductions and business cost increases
require XYZ to do "more with less." To accomplish this, XYZ must redesign
many of its administrative and business processes to improve efficiency
Californiaís population continues to grow
and diversify. To meet the needs of the Stateís citizens, XYZ must focus
on identifying customer needs and developing new service delivery mechanisms
through partnerships and other resources.
Customers at all levels want direct access
to government information and services. To provide services to these customers,
XYZ must enable access and service to anyone, anywhere, anytime.
Private companies and public agencies increasingly
focus on outcomes and accountability rather than process. To remain competitive,
XYZ must attract, develop, and retain a diverse and skilled workforce to
provide quality products and services.
Technology innovations drive and contribute
to current business trends toward alternative worksites and telecommuting.
To manage a mobile and distributed workforce, XYZ must develop capabilities
to connect, support, and manage these workers.
Many of XYZís business processes are reliant
on the experience and knowledge of its staff. To leverage this resource,
XYZ must capture and retain employees business knowledge in its automated
Californiaís economy continues to depend on
small business growth. To help these employers remain in business, XYZ
must reach out through innovative means to communicate, educate, and provide
electronic access services to these employer "partners".
These problems are a result of the existing
information technology environment. The current environment consists of
independent, ad hoc technology solutions that address specific program
problems. This leads to a situation where IT is reactive and tactical.
The proposed Business Driven Architecture is derived from business driven
requirements; it is proactive and strategic.
Rapidly deploy business process changes in
existing IT systems
Obtain information quickly for strategic decision
making, resource management, and standard or ad hoc reports
Respond timely to mandates and assess their
impact on existing IT environments
Support the increased range of technology
Effectively manage IT complexity
Maintain and add new IT skill sets.
Figure 2 gives a comparison of an organization
before and after an enterprise architecture implementation effort to illustrate
of alignment with business drivers and processes
with business drivers and processes
data and processes
standards, configurations and buy lists
integration complexity is high
technologies meet architectural integration specifications
cost of ownership is not considered when technology is introduced
configurations and required skill sets lowers support costs
leveraged technology investment
and future technology investments maximized
trained in a wide range of technologies
competencies in standard technologies.
Figure 2. - Architecture Comparison
The Business Driven Architecture (BDA)
mandates the alignment of information technology with line of business
goals. It "engineers out" everything that inhibits change and "engineers
in" a high tolerance for the unanticipated. Organizations that have embraced
business driven architectures have a technology plan and blueprint to guide
their directions, choices, and investments. They have a framework that
allows them to respond to business and IT trends.
When technology was expensive relative
to staff costs, these organizations utilized personnel resources and placed
less emphasis on technology. Today the trend is reversed; technology costs
are decreasing and staff costs are increasing. Organizations with a strong
business driven architecture leverage declining technology costs and optimize
staff resources. A business driven architecture creates an IT environment
A fully implemented business driven architecture
increases the ability to provide consistent services, accessible information,
scaleable infrastructure, and flexible technology integration on demand.
It helps bridge the gap between business and IT and creates a shared enterprise
vision. Branch management can focus more on business objectives and less
on information technology issues. The Business Driven Architecture positions
IT as a partner that enables improved business services at an accelerated
pace through resourceful means.
Better alignment of IT resources with business
goals to rapidly respond to business process changes
More effective IT investments
Lower total cost of ownership
Successful resolution of emerging business
problems while leveraging existing technology investment
Development of a consistent framework for
future technology decisions; thereby, limiting time consuming and unproductive
Phase 1 - Business View
The Business Driven Architecture Project
(BDAP) is the Departmentís (XYZ) effort to align information technology
(IT) with the needs of the business. It provides the blueprint for the
deployment of technology at XYZ. Phase I of the BDAP consists of the following
Business drivers are external or internal
influences that significantly impact and/or set direction for the Department
that were identified through interviews with XYZ managers from every branch.
The Information Technology Department Quality Council (ITDQC) and the Chief
Deputy Director then prioritized these business drivers
Technology trends are widely recognized
forces and directions of change in the IT industry. These trends affect
the architecture by influencing many of the business drivers and they help
highlight how changes in the technical landscape will affect the way business
Architecture requirements are derived from
the business drivers. These requirements set the boundaries and framework
under which the BDA must operate. They identify, at a high-level, eleven
elements that the BDA must provide in order for XYZ to achieve its business
goals and objectives. These eleven elements are categorized into four main
The results from Phase I lay the foundation
for the architecture and allow all technology decisions made in the subsequent
Phases to tie back to the drivers and requirements of XYZís business.
Deliver reliable, secure and accurate information
Accelerate change and decision making
Simplify complexity and lower costs
Support the Year 2000.
Identifying the business drivers and prioritizing
them is the critical first step in creating the BDA and ensures that the
enterprise shares a common understanding of the strategic issues and influences
affecting XYZ over the next three to five years. The XYZ business drivers
were captured from interviews with over 60 XYZ personnel. Fifteen separate
drivers were identified from these interviews. Members of the ITDQC and
the Chief Deputy Director were then asked to prioritize these drivers based
Based upon the results of this effort the
business drivers are divided into 3 categories: critical, medium importance
and low priority. The BDA will be designed to support the critical business
drivers as ranked by the executives of XYZ. Although the medium importance
and low priority business drivers will not be specifically targeted, they
will still be impacted by the BDA .
Importance to the XYZ enterprise
Facilitate XYZs changing way of doing business
Overall impact to California, government and/or
Critical Business Drivers
Medium Importance Business Drivers
Provide direct information access.
Assure accurate and timely service delivery.
Provide high quality end products.
Develop and maintain a skilled workforce.
Increase service delivery mechanisms.
Manage loss of employee expertise.
Provide timely access to decision support
Accomplish more work with fewer resources.
Improve and maintain a results-oriented outlook.
Low importance Business Drivers
Provide a single point of customer contact.
Recognize and adapt to frequent business process
Respond to increased competitive pressures.
Explore alternative funding sources.
Respond to needs of a growing and diverse
customer (State population) base.
The technology trends identify the most
important technology indicators impacting XYZ and the enterprise architecture.
The BDAP will utilize trends to frame the development of the technical
architecture in the context of current technology and to understand the
impact of technology on XYZís business drivers and architecture requirements.
Network Centric Computing. The need
to share information efficiently with customers and partners, as well as
internally, will cause electronic document handling, electronic commerce,
automated workflow and collaborative computing to continue increasing dramatically
Resource Challenges. Shortages
in personnel, time, and outsourcing resources will drive 3%-4% monthly
IT cost increases through 2000.
The Internet and its capabilities are becoming a universal business communications
Data Warehouse. The
need to accelerate decision-making causes organizations to put operational
data from the lines-of-business into data warehouses that provide enterprise-wide
views of information.
organizations increase information sharing and access to data for customers
and partners via the Internet, the complexity of securing information is
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of IT.
Because of the rising costs of IT support services and personnel, organizations
are over engineering their technology infrastructure (hardware, software
Technology Price/Performance Curve.
Innovations in the technology industry will continue to lower price/performance
Mobile Connectivity. The
demand for information by mobile users is increasing as the ability to
provide personalized customer service (at the point of customer contact)
becomes a strategic competitive advantage.
Systems Management and Support. Growing
personal computer use, dramatically increasing network traffic levels,
Intranet applications and expanding complexity of IT systems will drive
cost increases related to systems and personnel support services.
Client/Server Application Development.
The Client/Server model of distributed systems will continue to grow.
Organizational Dual Discipline Proficiency.
IT professionals are required to have a solid understanding of the drivers
and requirements of their business customers. Business managers are versed
in current technology issues and trends that affect their organization.
Application Development Tools. Stand-alone
tools used for limited, specific purposes lose market share as the environment
in most tool categories is consolidated around integrated tools from a
few, significant vendors.
Buy vs. Build. Buy
for competitive parity, build for competitive advantage.
Outsourcing. Organizations are increasingly
utilizing external providers for selected IT services.
architecture requirements identify, at a high-level, eleven elements that
the BDA must provide in order for XYZ to achieve its business goals and
objectives. These eleven elements are categorized into four main requirements.
Deliver Reliable, Secure and Accurate
Accelerate Change and Decision Making
Enable Information Access and Use by Customers.
The BDA allows for clear and accurate
information, in the appropriate format, at the right time, and to the right
customer regardless of the geographic location or means of access.
Establish Reliable Connectivity. The
BDA defines the necessary network infrastructure to allow connectivity
between employees, customers, partners and the enterprise information resources.
Provide Auditable Data Quality. The
BDA provides for high quality, auditable data for all operational systems.
Secure and Protect Enterprise Information.
The BDA requires the security and protection of enterprise information.
Simplify Complexity and Lower Costs
Adapt to Changing Business Requirements.
The BDA is highly flexible and quickly adapts to changing business needs
Enable Decision Support. The BDA supports
enterprise strategic and operational planning by providing information
resources for decision support activities.
Rely on Mainstream Technology. The
BDA utilizes mainstream technology which is defined as products and standards
that are widely used in the marketplace and consistent with the technology
trends identified in this document.
Support Standards. The BDA supports
national and international standards unless they are in direct conflict
with market forces and/or de facto technology standards.
Provide for a Managed Technology Environment.
The BDA leads to reliable, easily managed, maintained and supported systems.
Follow a Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
Methodology. The BDA functions
to lower the TCO for the enterprise.
Phase II - Conceptual Architecture Framework
Provide Year 2000 Compliance. The
BDA supports services and facilities without disruption beyond "Year 2000".
Todayís IT environment is constantly changing
and increasingly complex. To begin to simplify and view this environment,
the BDA provides a conceptual model or framework graphically depicted in
Figure 3. The BDA Conceptual Architecture Framework:
Is derived from the business requirements
Is understood and supported by the XYZís Information
Technology Department Quality Council (ITDQC)
Guides the engineering of an organizationís
information systems and technology infrastructure across the various component
Is based upon a logically consistent set of
principles and best practices
Serves as a template for minimizing the costs
of deploying and supporting technology
Covers the XYZís entire IT environment:
Figure 3 - BDA Conceptual Architecture
Framework Components Model
In this framework the Governance Domain
wraps the four Technology Domains: Application, Infrastructure, Data and
Security. Each of these domains consists of components and subcomponents.
The Conceptual Architecture Framework provides a structure for defining
the XYZís complete IT environment and the related principles, best practices,
technologies, standards, and products. This framework drives the architecture
definition and implementation of the component architectures and provides
a basis to ensure logical consistency across these component architectures.
The five domains and twelve components,
taken together, provide the basis for the enterprise architecture that
supports the business requirements of the Department.
The ITDQC charter defines governance as
an enterprise philosophy for how a business will run. It is a framework
for defining who is responsible for what and how decisions are made. To
a large degree, it is a political process based on principles. A principle
is a method, or rule, adopted as the basis for action or conduct that has
been set down and agreed upon by the ITDQC.
Applications encompass the purchase, development,
enhancement, maintenance, delivery and support of business application
software within the XYZ. Applications run on systems, access data and deliver
services through communication networks.
Infrastructure consists of logical elements,
physical elements, carrier services, protocols, client and server hardware
platforms, operating systems, distributed computing services, and the supporting
systems management functionality. This domain defines a managed computing
environment for the XYZís platforms and networks.
Data provides a consistent and universal
representation of the "things of significance" which must be recorded,
reported and accounted for in a business information environment. These
"things of significance" are relevant to the enterprise's activities, processes,
requests and services (e.g., a Customer, a Claim, an Employer Account).
The Data Domain provides the principles and best practices promoting an
information rich environment that:
Provides a blueprint for the development of
a departmental information infrastructure that is accessible, responsible,
easy to use, and secure
Maximizes the information assets available
to support the department's knowledge workers and executive management
Encourages the sharing of information throughout
the department and with other entities.
Security defines the protections that efficiently
and effectively manage the enterprise's data and information security environment
to support confidentiality, integrity, privacy and recoverability of automated
business systems and data.
Business Driven Architecture Vision
The XYZ IT environment will evolve from
the current multiple, independent technical architectures and independent
technology projects to a shared architecture vision, based on the Business
Driven Architecture (BDA).
The adoption, awareness and implementation
of the BDA will result in a high level of collaboration between business
and IT. The BDA will improve the consistency, coordination and integration
across XYZís IT infrastructure, business technology projects, IT consulting
services and IT purchases. It will guide new technology investigation,
research, evaluation, product selection and investment. The IT community
within the XYZ will define new technology proposals based on shared IT
principles, best practices and standards.
By adopting Business Driven Architecture,
we can provide a structure to better manage and support our complex, widely
spread information technology environment into the 21st Century.